Friday, November 14, 2008

Volvox video from
Protistas Volvox Reproduccion.

Wednesday, November 12, 2008

Amoeba Flamenca

Amoeba Flamenca video

Tuesday, November 11, 2008


Ameba movements.

Tuesday, November 4, 2008

Bio Fertilizer

 What Is Bio Fertilizer
 Ready to use live formulates of beneficial microorganisms which on application to seed, root or soil,
• mobilize the availability of nutrients
• help build up the micro-flora
• Improve the soil health in general
 The main sources of biofertilizers are bacteria, fungi, and cynobacteria

 Why should we use biofertilizers?
 modern agriculture is getting more and more dependent upon the steady supply of synthetic inputs. Thus,
• Decrease in the quality of crop products
• spoil the soil properties, Osmatic pressure, pH, Conductivity and water holding capacity
• Affect adversly on population of micro-organisms and other parameters

 Types of Bio Fertilizer
 Nitrogen fixers
 Convert nitrogen from the atmosphere into ammonium (NH4) or nitrate (NO3) ions which are readily useable by plants
 These include Rhizobium, Azatobacter, Azospirillum, Blue Green Algae (BGA) and Azolla
 secrete growth promoting substances
 Contained in the root nodules or Free living

 Nitrogen fixers - Bacteria
 Rhizobium
• Are soil bacteria that fix
nitrogen after becoming
established inside root nodules
of legumes
• They cannot independently fix nitrogen, and requires a plant host
• Morphologically they are generally gram negative, motile, non-sporulating rods

 Nitrogen fixers - Bacteria
 Azospirillum
• Easy adaptability and limited host specificity
• Lives inside the cortical cells and xylem vessels of plant roots
• Have ability to fix 25-40 kg N/ha/year

 Nitrogen fixers - Bacteria
 Azospirillum
• Secrete growth promoting substances like gibberellic acid and IAA which enhance root proliferation and growth of crop plants

 Nitrogen fixers – Blue Green
 Anabaena
• genus of filamentous cyanobacteria
• they form symbiotic relationships with certain plants, such as the mosquito fern
 Azolla
 They form a symbiotic relationship with the blue-green alga which fixes atmospheric nitrogen, giving the plant access to the essential nutrient
 grow at great speed - doubling its biomass every two to three days
 30 – 100 kg N/ha/Year
Yield increases
20 – 25 %
 Phosphorous Solubilizing Bacteria
 Solubilize unavailable organic & inorganic forms of phosphorus (80%)
 Organic P slowly mineralized by the action of phosphatases
 Inorganic P solubilized by the action of organic and inorganic acids
 Belonging to the genera bacillus and pseudomonas
 Phosphorous Solubilizing Bacteria
 Pseudomonas
• Gram-negative,

• Produce amino acids and growth promoting substances
• Produce About 30 kg P/ha/annum

 Nutrients Up Take Enhancing Fungus
 Increase water uptake in plant
 Increase mineral uptake (especially P, Cu & Zn)
 Limits uptake of (Al, As, Ti,
Ba & Cd)
 Two types Ectomycorrhizae
and Endomycorrhizae

 Nutrients Up Take Enhancing Fungus
 Ectomycorrhizae
• Form a sheath around the root
• Hyphae grow between the spaces in the cortical root cell
• No cellular penetration by the hyphae
• Members of the
basidomycetes or the

 Nutrients Up Take Enhancing Fungus
 Endomycorrhizae
• Hyphae form arbuscles (Bulb structure)
• Called VAM (vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae)
• Direct cell to cell
exchange of nutrients
• Hyphae grow into
intercellular spaces

 Sulphur Solubilizing Microbes
 Thiobacillus
• They obtain nutrients by oxidizing iron and sulfur with O2

 Sulphur Solubilizing Microbes
 Thiobacillus
• they require inorganic molecules as an electron donor and inorganic carbon (such as carbon dioxide) as a source
• They possess an iron oxidase, which allows them to metabolize metal ions

 Enzymatic Biofertilizer
 Microorganism having ability to secret enzymes and external enzymes
 which on application to seed, root or soil mobilize the availability of nutrients by their biological activity
 Decomposers

 Break down organic waste and dead organisms.
 Releases key ions such as nitrates, and other minor nutrients that are not easily accessible for plants
 Many Kinds of Bacteria and Fungi assist in this process
 Potentials
 Cyanobacteria is an economically attractive and ecologically sound alternative to chemical fertilizers
 Specially in rice cultivation.

 benefits of using bio fertilizers
 Increase crop yield by 20-30%
 Replace chemical nitrogen and phosphorus by 25%
 Stimulate plant growth

 benefits of using bio fertilizers
 Activate the soil biologically
 Restore natural soil fertility
 Provide protection against drought and some soil borne diseases
 Cost effective
 Eco-friendly
 How biofertilizers are applied to crops
 Seed treatment
• seeds are treated with nitrogenous biofertilizer and dried in shade. The treated seeds have to be sown as soon as possible
 Seedling root dip
• Recommended biofertilizers are mixed in this water and the roots of seedlings are dipped for 8-10 hrs
 How biofertilizers are applied to crops
 Soil treatment
• The recommended biofertilizers are mixed in compost and kept overnight. This mixture is incorporated in the soil at the time of sowing or planting
 Disadvantages of using Bio Fertilizers
 Biofertilizer packets need to be stored in cool and dry place away from direct sunlight and heat.
 Right combinations of biofertilizers have to be used
 Should use for the specified crop only. (Rhizobium)
 Disadvantages of using Bio Fertilizers
 Other chemicals should not be mixed with the biofertilizers
 Biofertilizers are live product and require care in the storage

 Conclusion
 One of the major concerns in today's world is the pollution and contamination of soil
 The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has caused tremendous harm to the environment
 An answer to this is the biofertilizer, an environmentally friendly fertilizer now used in most countries